O que é Dharma? Qual seu significado?

Dharma”  (ou darma), é uma palavra do idioma antigo sânscrito que significa literalmente “aquilo que sustenta, que mantém“, mas é usado em significados mais amplos principalmente pelas escolas de sabedoria do Yoga e do Budismo. No Yoga, “Dharma” é a força régia da existência, a essência verdadeira do que existe, ou a própria Verdade, trazendo significados associados como a direção universal que baliza a vida humana ou o devir pessoal. Quando acontece uma transmissão de compreensão, da Verdade, entre mestre e discípulo nessa tradição, diz-se que houve uma “transmissão do Dharma”. No Budismo, “Dharma” (ou dhamma) é a Verdade contida nos ensinamentos do Buddha Gautama, que também apontam na direção do que é a Verdade — algumas vezes se fala em conjunto, “Buddha-Dharma”. Um dos principais livros do cânone budista que contém ensinamentos diretos do Buda se chama Dharmapada (ou dhammapada). Praticamente todos eles mantém uma certa coerência em essência que aponta para a “Lei Natural” ou a “Lei Cósmica”, num sentido amplo de toda a existência e não apenas o da realidade material visível. O dharma “indiano” também guarda semelhanças com o “Tao” chinês e com o “logos” ocidental.

O significado profundo de dharma não está nas palavras, mas na experiência, na observação verdadeira e na compreensão. Em termos de palavras,  a Wikipedia tem uma boa definição. Três outras definições interessantes: “O caminho das Verdades mais altas“; “A ordem subjacente da Natureza (e portanto significa ‘o modo como as coisas são’)“; e “A realização de uma natureza inerente“. Não é teoria religiosa nem filosófica. Uma vida bem examinada e investigada, onde exista auto-conhecimento (como disse Sócrates), é uma vida que encontra a Verdade, que encontra seu caminho, que encontra o Dharma. Se o universo fosse um rio, o fluxo desse rio seria o Dharma.

Vários estudiosos, seres iluminados e outros autores da sabedoria oriental e ocidental já falaram sobre o Dharma, como por exemplo:

Brh. Upanishad, 1.4.14: “Verdadeiramente, aquilo que é Dharma é verdade. Por isso se diz de um homem que fala a verdade, “Ele fala o Dharma”, ou de um homem que fala do Dharma, “Ele fala a Verdade”. Na verdade, as duas coisas são o mesmo.” 

Kalu Rinpoche: “Dharma é o caminho de descobrir a si mesmo, isso é Dharma”.

Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche: “Dharma é a verdade que ultrapassa a verdade relativa e a verdade última; ainda assim aproveita e desfruta da abundância da verdade relativa e da verdade última”.

Ajahn Chah (em In Simple Terms): “…The Dhamma is just like this, choosing analogies for you to listen to, because the Dhamma doesn’t have anything. Does it have a color? Is it round? Does it have corners? Is it short? There’s no way to get acquainted with it except through comparisons like this. If you understand this, you understand the Dhamma. “Don’t think that the Dhamma lies far away from you. It lies right with you; it’s about you. Take a look. Now happy, now sad, now satisfied, now dissatisfied, now angry at this person, now hating that person: It’s all Dhamma…”

Ajan Chah (de novo): (1) “What is Dhamma? Nothing isn’t.” (2) How does the Dhamma teach the proper way of life? It shows us how to live. It has many ways of showing it – on rocks or trees or just in front of you. It is a teaching but not in words. So still the mind, the heart, and learn to watch. You’ll find the whole Dhamma revealing itself here and now. At what other time and place are you going to look? (3) First you understand the Dhamma with your thoughts. If you begin to understand it, you will practice it. And if you practice it, you will begin to see it, you are the Dhamma and you have the joy of the Buddha. (4) The Dhamma has to be found by looking into your own heart and seeing that which is true and that which is not, that which is balanced and that which is not balanced. (5) Whatever you do, make it Dhamma. If you don’t feel good, look inside. If you know it’s wrong and still do it, that’s defilement.

Huang Po (mestre Zen-Budista): “Por dharma quero dizer o coração, porque não há dharma sem coração.”

Chögyam Trungpa: “The dharma is based on honesty, on not having self-deception of any kind. When the dharma says blue, it is blue; when it says red, it is red. Dharma is like saying fire is hot, or the sky is blue: it is speaking the truth. The difference is that dharma is the truth of the reality of the journey toward freedom. Saying that red is red does not particularly liberate you from seeing green or yellow. But when dharma speaks about reality, we see that it is worth stepping out of our little world of habitual patterns, our little nest. In that way, the dharma brings greater vision”.  

Swami Sivananda: “That which elevates one is Dharma”.

Kanada Rishi, no “Vaisheshika Darshana Sutra”: “Dharma is that which fulfils the prosperity and the ultimate goal (of human life), namely liberation. [athaato dharmaM vyaakhyaasyaamaH | yataH abhyudaya-niHshreyasa- siddhiH sa dharmaH]

Adi Shankara em “Introduction to Gita Bhashya” (comentário aos versos 7-8 Cap. 4): “The Vedas state a two-fold dharma for the maintenance of the world – one characterized by Works, and the other by Renunciation. Dharma is that which directly leads to liberation and worldly prosperity.” [dvivido hi vedokto dharmaH pravRRitti-lakShaNo nivRRitti-lakShaNashcha jagataH sthiti-kaaraNam | praaNinaaM saakShaad abhyudaya-niHshreyasa hetuH yaH sa dharmaH…]

Rishi Kanada, Vaiseshika Sutras: “That which leads to the attainment of Abhyudaya (prosperity in this world) and Nihsreyasa (total cessation of pain and attainment of eternal bliss hereafter) is Dharma”.

Rene Guenon, father of the 20th century school of Perennial Philosophy (“Introduction to the Study of Hindu Doctrines”): “It [dharma] is, so to speak, the essential nature of a being, comprising the sum of its particular qualities or characteristics, and determining, by virtue of the tendencies or dispositions it implies, the manner in which this being will conduct itself, either in a general way or in relation to each particular circumstance. The same idea may be applied, not only to a single being, but also to an organized collectivity, to a species, to all the beings included in a cosmic cycle or state of existence, or even to the whole order of the Universe; it then, at one level or another, signifies conformity with the essential nature of being”.

Atharva Veda: “Prithivim Dharmana Dhritam” “This world is upheld by Dharma”.

Tokuda Igarashi: “Se chegarmos a apreciar todos os fenômenos com a visão de um buda e não aquela de um ser humano comum, qual seria o aspecto do mundo? Todavia, mesmo as coisas mais terríveis são a expressão de tathata, a totalidade, porque todos os fenômenos ensinam o Dharma. Não se descreve o Dharma com palavras, dizemos que as árvores e as montanhas elas mesmas ensinam o Dharma. É algo de secreto, “secreto” porque se nós estamos no mundo do inferno, não os podemos ouvir, e enquanto seres humanos não os podemos ouvir tampouco. Um buda e somente um buda pode ouvir uma árvore falar do Dharma”.

Wikipedia: “Dharma (Sanskrit, roughly law or way) is the way of the higher Truths. Dharma forms the basis for philosophies, beliefs and practices originating in India. The oldest of these, widely known as Hinduism, is Sanatana Dharma or Eternal Dharma. Buddhism, Ayyavazhi, Jainism and Sikhism also retain the centrality of Dharma. In these traditions, beings that live in harmony with Dharma proceed more quickly towards moksha, nirvana, or personal liberation. Dharma also refers to the teachings and doctrines of the various founders of the traditions, such as Gautama Buddha in Buddhism and Mahavira in Jainism. As the religious and moral doctrine of the rights and duties of each individual, Dharma can refer generally to religious duty, and also mean social order, right conduct, or simply virtue.

The word Dharma or dhamma (Pali) is used in most or all philosophies and religions of Indian origin, the dharmic faiths, namely Hinduism (Sanatana Dharma), Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. “Dharma” derives from the verbal root dhri, which simply means “manner of being.” The term must therefore be understood in its original (i.e. metaphysical) context, that of a conformity to a divine or creative principle at work in an individual and in nature. It represents the individual’s internal law, to which obedience must be given if that individual life is to live in accordance with a Divine Will. This is what Hindus consider the sole or primary purpose of life. It explains how justice finds its place among the many modern definitions of the word dharma.

Jiddu Krishnamurti: We hardly ever listen to the sound of a dog’s bark, or to the cry of a child or the laughter of a man as he passes by. We separate ourselves from everything, and then from this isolation look and listen to all things. It is this separation that is so destructive, for in that lies all conflict and confusion. If you listened to the sound of those bells with complete silence, you would be riding on it–or, rather, the sound would carry you across the valley and over the hill. They beauty of it is felt only when you and the sound are not separate, when you are part of it. Meditation is the ending of the separation not by any action of will or desire. (@ Open Dharma)

Swami Narayananada Ayurved Saraswati: “Os antigos Sábios Védicos, em suas meditações, entraram em profundos estados de consciência e, nesse estado expandido, foram compreendendo o Dharma, a ordem cósmica. Em outras palavras, Eles atingiram a percepção direta da maneira pela qual a presença do Ser ou Pura Consciência, imanente em todas as formas, em todo o Universo, mantém este Universo em constante fluxo, dentro de uma ordem perfeita e em vida eterna, tendo como princípio básico a Lei de Causa e Efeito – Satkaryavada – e a Lei da igualdade dos atributos – Parinamavada. Esta é a definição mais ampla de Dharma, por isso chamado Sanátana Dharma”.

Boddhidharma: (palavras de Boddhidharma) “The Dharma is the truth that all natures are pure. By this truth, all appearances are empty. Defilement and attachment, subject and object don’t exist. The sutra says ‘ The Dharma includes no being because it’s free from the impurity of being, and the Dharma includes no self because it’s free from the impurity of self’. Those wise enough to believe and understand these truth are bound to practise according to the Dharma. And since that which is real includes nothing that is worth begrudging, they give their body, life, and property in charity, without regret, without the vanity of the giver, gift, or recipient, and without bias or attachment. And to eliminate impurity they teach others, but without being attached to form. Thus, through their own practise they’re able to help others and glorify the Way of Enlightenment. And as with charity, they also practise the other virtues to eliminate delusion, they practise nothing at all. This is what’s meant by practising the Dharma.'” (@ Buddhist Door)

yogadharma.com.ar: “Dharma es la capacidad de prestar servicio, la cualidade esencial de todo ser vivente” (do “Bhagavad Gita”).

buddhanet.org: “The Buddha taught Dhamma (the way, the truth, the path). He did not call his followers “Buddhists”; he referred to them as “Dhammists” (those who follow the truth)”.

What one’s mind contains, at this moment, is Dhamma. Dhamma is everything there is. Let a beginning be made to understand Dharma. Dharma is free from all sectarian beliefs, dogmas, rites and rituals. Even sectarian names are not necessary. You may or may not call yourself a Hindu or a Muslim, but you should be a Dharmic person, a person living the life of Dharma. This means that your mind should remain pure. If your mind remains pure, then all your other actions, vocal or physical, will naturally become pure.

On the other hand, if you learn the art of Dharma, this means the art of living, and you stop generating negativity, you start experiencing peace and harmony within yourself. When you keep your mind pure, full of love and compassion, the peace and harmony that is generated within permeates the atmosphere around you. Anyone who comes in contact with you at that time starts experiencing peace and harmony. You are distributing something good that you have. You have peace, you have harmony, you have real happiness, and you are distributing this to others. This is Dharma, the art of living.

Dhamma is so simple, so scientific, so true-a law of nature applicable to everyone. Whether one is Buddhist, Hindu, Muslim, Christian; whether one is American, Indian, Burmese, Russian or Italian – it makes no difference; a human being is a human being. Dhamma is a pure science of mind, matter, and the interaction between the two. Do not allow it to become a sectarian or philosophical belief. This will be of no help.

Sankaracharya: As a result of this (nirvikalpa) samadhi millions of results of actions, accumulated in this beginningless world over past and present births, are destroyed, and pure dharma (helpful to the realisation of Truth) grows. The experts in Yoga call this samadhi ‘a rain cloud of dharma’ because it pours forth countless showers of the bliss of dharma.

Ananda Marga: The word dharma signifies “property”. The English word for it is “nature”, “characteristic” or “property”. The nature of fire is to burn or produce heat. It is the characteristic or property of fire and is also termed the nature of fire. Similarly, the dharma or nature of a human being is to seek the Cosmic Entity.

hinduism.about.com: Anything that helps human being to reach god is dharma and anything that hinders human being from reaching god is adharma. (…) The purpose of dharma is not only to attain a union of the soul with the supreme reality, it also suggests a code of conduct that is intended to secure both worldly joys and supreme happiness. Rishi Kanda has defined dharma in Vaisesika as “that confers worldly joys and leads to supreme happiness”.

veda.wikidot.org: Dharma (Sanskrit) (“way of righteousness.” From dhri, “to sustain; carry, hold.”) refers to the underlying order in Nature and human life and behavior considered to be in accord with that order. Dharma is a Sanskrit expression of the widest import. There is no corresponding word in any other language. It would also be futile to attempt to give any definition of the word. It can only be explained. It has a wide variety of meanings. A few of them would enable us to understand the range of that expression. Hence dharma can be briefly said as “that which contains or upholds the cosmos.” The word ‘Dharma’ is used to mean Justice (Nyaya), what is right in a given circumstance, moral values of life, pious obligations of individuals, righteous conduct in every sphere of activity, being helpful to other living beings, giving charity to individuals in need of it or to a public cause or alms to the needy, natural qualities or characteristics or properties of living beings and things, duty and law as also constitutional law. (veja mais no site)

sotozen-net.or.jp: We then take refuge in the Three Treasures: Buddha, Dharma and Sangha. The Buddha is the one who awakened to reality. The Dharma is reality itself, the way things truly are. The Sangha are the people who aspire to study and living according to the teaching of the reality of all beings.

livingdharma.org: The “Dharma” refers to the teachings of Buddhism, the essence of which is the impermanent and interdependent nature of all life. But “Dharma” also refers to the everyday experiences of our lives that make these teachings come alive. That’s why we say the Dharma is “living.”

Brh. Upanishad, 1.4.14: ” Verily, that which is Dharma is truth. Therefore they say of a man who speaks truth, ‘He speaks the Dharma,’ or of a man who speaks the Dharma, ‘He speaks the Truth.’ Verily, both these things are the same.”

Oxford Philosophy Dictionary: (Sanskrit, carrying or holding) In Buddhism, the factors of existence. Originally not so much an ethical concept as one of cosmological theory, dharma bears some relationship to the Greek logos, meaning the principle or law governing the universe, and in particular the cycles of rebirth. It became associated with the teachings of the Buddha and the sphere of temporal (non-religious) duty and custom, and from here is extended to cover aspects of character that make up a personality. As in the ethics of Kant, it is also associated with concern for others as extensions of oneself. This ethical notion of dharma is prominent in the Buddhist contribution to Hindu thought.

acessoaoinsight.net: Quem vê a origem dependente vê o Dhamma; quem vê o Dhamma vê a origem dependente (MN 28, The Great Discourse on Causation – Paticcasamuppada, Bhikkhu Boddhi)

– – – – – – – – –